四、 翻译37 P72全 P46Ⅱ
- 1. A (n) byte is made up of eight bits, which are the smallest units of information handled by a computer.
- 2. According to the text, ENIAC was the first digital computer ever built in history.
- 3. It is believed that Grace Murray Hopper wrote the first program that turned English computer instructions into the strings of 1s and 0s that make computers work.
- 4. British mathematicians Charles Babbage and Augusta Ada Byron once worked on plans for machines that could store information on punched cards, which had holes in them.
- 5. With the rapid development of computer technology, the desktop or laptop computers we use today are much more powerful than the mainframes built decades ago, such as ENIAC and UNIVAC.
- 6. The invention of integrated circuits or computer chips in the 1960s made it possible for computers to become smaller.
- 7. A computer program is a detailed set of instructions used to tell a computer how to solve a problem or carry out a task.
- 8. Invented in the 1970s, personal computers are designed to meet the computing needs of an individual.
- 1. Graphical user interfaces (GUIs) allow users to point and click on small on-screen pictures, called icons, to issue commands.
- 2. A bit, short for binary digit, has two possible representations (0 or 1), and a byte has 256 possible combinations of 0s and 1s.
- 3. The physical memory of a computer is either random-access memory (RAM) or read-only memory (ROM).
- 4. A bus is usually a flat cable with numerous parallel wires. A 16-bit bus has 16 parallel wires and allows the simultaneous transmission of 16 bits of information from one computer to another.
- 5. Computer input devices include keyboards, mice, joysticks, scanners, and so on.
- 6. Sometimes described as the brain of computers, the CPU is a microprocessor chip—-a single piece of silicon containing millions of tiny electrical components.
- 1. As used in the text, e-mail (short for “electronic mail”) can refer to a single electronic message or to the entire electronic system for sending and receiving messages and files over a computer network.
- 2. E-mail is protected by copyright law. If you receive an e-mail from a client, you cannot immediately post it to your company’s website without his or her permission.
- 3. Legally, e-mail messages sent by employees via the employer’s computer network belong to the employer, so the employer is within his or her rights to read them without the employees’ knowledge or permission.
- 4. When you are using e-mail, you should remember that deleted e-mail messages can be retrieved from your company’s servers and used in a legal case.
- 5. An attached document retains its original format/formatting when it is received by the reader and can be downloaded right to his or her computer.
- 6. A (n) signature file created with e-mail programs can automatically put a signature at the end of each e-mail message.
- 7. E-mail messages should be concise. Usually, their length should be kept under one and a half screens.
- 8. E-mail is essentially a form of public communication. If a message is confidential or proprietary, it is not appropriate to send it by e-mail.
- 1. In order to prevent your new PC from virus infections, you should adopt necessary security measures before connecting it to the Internet.
- 2. For a Windows PC, activating the ClearType effect can smooth font edges, making the fonts displayed much more crisply on the screen.
- 3. The default background color for text areas in Windows is white.
- 4. System files and file extensions are hidden and big icons are displayed instead of a detailed list. That is the default manner in which the file system is displayed in Windows Explorer.
- 5. The screen refresh rate of LCDs is usually limited to 60 Hz.
- 6. Installing the Microsoft Windows XP PowerToys in your Windows PC makes it easier to change default configurations, synchronize across computers, and manipulate files and photographs.
- 1. An operating system has three major functions: coordinating and manipulating computer hardware, organizing files on a variety of storage media, and managing hardware errors and the loss of data.
- 2. ROM contains a (n) bootstrap program that supplies instructions for loading key parts of the operating system when the computer starts.
- 3. Text-oriented command interpreters require commands to be typed in or to be selected via function keys on a keyboard.
- 4. If you want to run more than one process at a time, you must use an operating system with multitasking capability.
- 5. Operating systems can use virtual memory to run processes that require more main memory than is actually available.
- 6. A desktop operating system, such as Windows, is designed for a personal computer.
- 7. For a multiuser operating system the processing takes place on a centralized computer, whereas for a network operating system processing takes place on users’ local computers.
- 8. Handheld computers typically feature single-user operating systems.
- 1. A programming language is any artificial(人工) language that can be used to write a sequence of instructions that can ultimately be processed and executer by a computer.
- 2. The reason that naturl/human languages are not suited for programming computers is that they are ambiguous.
- 3. A machine language is a low-level language in binary code that a computer can understand and execute directly.
- 4. Most programmers today prefer to use high-level languages because they have some similarities to human languages and are therefore fairly easy to use for writing complicated programs.
- 5. In an assembly language, each statement（声明） corresponds roughly to one machine language instruction.
- 6. Although assembly languages are very close to machine languages, they must still be translated into the latter before a computer can use them.
- 7. Data declarations are statements which give names and properties to variables（变量）.
- 8. The history of programming languages can be traced back almost to the invention of the digital computer in the 1940s.
- 1. Java is partially modeled on C++, the dominant software development language before Java.
- 2. Java is a (n) object-oriented programming language; programming in Java is centered on creating objects, manipulating objects, and making objects work together.
- 3. The bytecode generated by a Java compiler is machine independent and can run on any platform with a Java interpreter.
- 4. With Java, there are several security mechanisms to protect your computer system against harm caused by stray programs.
- 5. The new Java Virtual Machine uses a technology known an just-in-time compilation.
- 6. Java provides built-in language support for multithreading, which allows a program to perform several tasks simultaneously.
- 1. The development process in the software life cycle involves four phases: analysis, design, implementation, and testing.
- 2. In the system development process, the systems analyst defines the user, needs, requirements and methods in the analysis phase.
- 3. In the system development process, the code is written in the implementation（实施） phase.
- 4. In the system development process, modularity is a very well-established principle used in the design phase.
- 5. The most commonly used tool in the design phase is the structure chart.
- 6. In the system development process, flowcharts and pseudocode are tools used by programmers in the implementation phase.
- 7. Pseudocode is part English and part program logic.
- 8. While black box testing is done by the system test engineer and the user, white box testing is done by the programmer.
- 1. In relational data modeling, the fist step is to identify all the entities（实体） and their relationships.
- 2. The rawest form of data storage is a (n) file where data is stored without any attributes, characteristics, or links.
- 3. SQL, developed by IBM, is the most common query language.
- 4. The main components of a DBMS are the storage engine, the database manager, the query processor, and the language precompiler.
- 5. The language precompiler serves to convert the DML statements embedded in the application program into normal procedure calls.
- 6. The complete database application can be divided into three major categories: data presentation（介绍）, business logic, and data storage.
- 1. The most widely used LAN system is Ethernet, which adopts a form of access known as CSMA-CD.
- 2. A feature common to all LANs is that they are limited in range: typically they cover a building or campus.
- 3. Bridges can only connect LANs of the same type.
- 4. Routers can interconnect many different types of computer network.
- 5. The public telephone and data networks are the two major components in most real computer networks that provide long-distance links that extend a LAN into a (n) wide area network.
- 6. The high-speed data services for the interconnection of computer networks are usually referred to as broadband connections.
- 7. It is now generally agreed that computer systems should be constructed as client/server systems rather than as monolithic systems.
- 8. In the protection of computer data, public key systems allow users to scramble and unscramble their messages easily without a third party intruding.
- 1. The Internet evolved from ARPANET, a large wide area network created in the 1960s by the United States military.
- 2. A Web site is made up of documents called Web pages, which share a common domain name, contain text, pictures, sounds, and videos, and often contain links to other Web pages.
- 3. A user typically connects to the Internet in one of two ways: dedicated（专用） access and dial-up access.
- 4. With dial-up access, a modem is needed to convert signals from digital to analog and from analog to digital.
- 5. Uniform Resource Locators are Internet addresses used by Web browsers to locate Internet resources.
- 6. The bandwidth of a computer network is the amount of data it can transmit.
concurrent access anomaly 并发访问异常
artificial intelligence 人工智能
assembly language 汇编语言
broadband connection 宽带连接
bcc line 密送行
context switching 上下文切换
data corruption 数据损坏
data model 数据模型
data presentation 数据显示
database manager 数据库管理器；数据库管理员
device driver 设备驱动程序
garbage collection 垃圾收集，无用(存储)单元收集
data inconsistency 数据不一致
integrated circuit 集成电路
integrated 完整 (性)
interactive application 交互式应用程序
life cycle 生命周期，生存周期，寿命周期
memory allocation 存储器分配
memory location 存储单元
relational data modeling 关系型数据建模
operating system 操作系统
procedural language 过程语言
procedure call 过程调用
public key 公用密钥，公钥
query optimization 查询优化
data redundancy 数据冗余
refresh rate 刷新率
source code 源(代)码
storage engine 存储引擎
storage medium 存储介质
software engineering 软件工程
structure chart 结构图
test case 测试用例
Trojan (horse) 特洛伊木马程序(或病毒)
system utility 系统实用程序
user working environment 用户工作环境
validity check 有效性校验(或检查)