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今天在百度贴吧看到一条趣闻帖,楼主盖楼讲述了firefox、ie、netscape、safari等浏览器的user-agent带有mozilla标记的发展历程。感觉挺有意思的,整理了一下发到这儿。

原文地址:http://tieba.baidu.com/f?kz=939896169

最早的时候有一个浏览器叫NCSA Mosaic,把自己标称为NCSA_Mosaic/2.0 (Windows 3.1),它支持文字显示的同时还支持图片,于是Web开始好玩起来。

然后出现了一个新的网页浏览器,“Mozilla”,其实就是“Mosaic终结者”的意思,这搞的Mosaic很不爽,(毕竟Mosaic出道早,江湖老),新浏览器最后正式公布的名称是Netscape,它把自己标称为Mozilla/1.0 (Win3.1),更好玩了。Netscape支持框架显示,后来框架在大家中间流行起来了,但Mosaic不支持框架啊,于是伟大的“用户代理人探测”技术出现了,如果是“Mozilla”,那就发给支持框架的页面,至于其他的浏览器,则发给不含框架的页面。

Netscape想逗Microsoft玩儿,把Windows叫做“几乎不曾做过调试的设备驱动器”,后者很恼火。Microsoft于是推出了自己的 网页浏览器,叫做Internet Explorer,希望它能成为“Netscape终结者”。Internet Explorer也支持框架,但它不是Mozilla啊,所以没人给它发送带有框架的页面。Microsoft慢慢烦躁起来,不再寄希望于网站管理员逐渐 认识IE并给它发框架,而是宣称自己是“兼容Mozilla”的,开始模仿Netscape,把自己标称为Mozilla/1.22 (compatible; MSIE 2.0; Windows 95),这样Internet Explorer也能收到框架了,整个Microsoft狂喜,但网站管理员开始有点被搞糊涂了。

Microsoft把IE和Windows一起卖,并且把产品也弄得比Netscape更好了,拉开了第一场浏览器之战。结果和大家知道的一样,Netscape被干掉了,Microsoft大胜、大喜。但是后来Netscape以Mozilla的新名称重生了,构造了Gecko,标称其为Mozilla/5.0 (Windows; U; Windows NT 5.0; en-US; rv:1.1) Gecko/20020826,Gecko属于渲染引擎,表现优异。Mozilla开发了Firefox,标称为Mozilla/5.0 (Windows; U; Windows NT 5.1; sv-SE; rv:1.7.5) Gecko/20041108 Firefox/1.0,并且Firefox表现也非常优秀。Gecko扩张迅速,一些浏览器使用了它的代码并标称为Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh; U; PPC Mac OS X Mach-O; en-US; rv:1.7.2) Gecko/20040825 Camino/0.8.1 ,这是一个,还有Mozilla/5.0 (Windows; U; Windows NT 5.1; de; rv:1.8.1.8) Gecko/20071008 SeaMonkey/1.0,另一个,它们都伪装成Mozilla,同时也都是基于Gecko支持的。

Gecko表现优秀,IE则很差劲,于是身份甄别再次发生,输送给Gecko的是设计良好的网页代码,其他浏览器就没有这个待遇了。Linux的跟随者很伤心,因为他们创建了基于KHTML引擎支持的Konqueror,但却不会被输送好代码,虽然他们自己认为KHTML和Gecko一样优秀,于是Konquerer开始伪装自己“像Gecko”那样以得到好的网页,并标称自己为Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; Konqueror/3.2; FreeBSD) (KHTML, like Gecko),这个世界更让人困惑了。

后来出现了Opera这样的主儿,宣称“允许用户自己决定让浏览器装成谁”,它的菜单中提供了Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 6.0; Windows NT 5.1; en) Opera 9.51, Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.0; U; en; rv:1.8.1) Gecko/20061208 Firefox/2.0.0 Opera 9.51,Opera/9.51 (Windows NT 5.1; U; en) 供大家来选择,选谁是谁。

Apple开发了Safari,使用了KHTML,同时也增加了很多新特性,后来干脆一锅煮,另起炉灶叫了WebKit,但是它有希望能够得到那些为KHTML编写的网页,于是Safari标称自己为Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh; U; PPC Mac OS X; de-de) AppleWebKit/85.7 (KHTML, like Gecko) Safari/85.5,这个世界更混乱了。

Microsoft越来越担心Firefox的发展,重新启动了Internet Explorer的开发,标称自己为Mozilla/4.0 (compatible; MSIE 8.0; Windows NT 6.0) ,可以很好的渲染代码,但那要看网站管理员是否指示它这么做。

Google也开发了自己的浏览器Chrome, 使用了Webkit,有点像Safari,希望能得到为Safari编写的网页,于是决定装成Safari。这样啊,Chrome使用了WebKit渲染 引擎,想装成Safari,而WebKit呢又伪装自己是KHTML,KHTML呢又是伪装成Gecko的,同时所有的浏览器又都宣称自己是 Mozilla,于是,Chrome宣称自己是Mozilla/5.0 (Windows; U; Windows NT 5.1; en-US) AppleWebKit/525.13 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/0.2.149.27 Safari/525.13,,UserAgent字符串彻底混乱了,也几乎不再发挥任何作用,每个人都宣称自己是别人,混乱充斥人间啊。

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原文就是这样,有点调侃的味道,可以总结为一句话:Mozilla是Netscape的吉祥物,也是Netscape Navigator浏览器使用的内部开发代号。由于Netscape早期的影响力,直到今天,所有浏览器包括IE,向Web服务器报告自己的浏览器标识的 时候,都以 “Mozilla”开头,表明自己是Mozilla兼容的。这,就是原因啦。

查看浏览器标记的方法也很容易,通过JavaScript语句:

javascript:alert(navigator.userAgent)

在地址栏输入以上代码,然后回车。

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今天终于搞明白为什么使用自己的小幽打开本站时,访客记录的图标是apple+Safari啦。